Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations 5. Baruch 6. Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel 3. Amos 9. Obadiah 1. Jonah 4.
Micah 7. Nahum 3. Habakkuk 3. Zephaniah 3. Haggai 2. Zechariah Malachi 4. Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans Galatians 6. Ephesians 6. Philippians 4. Colossians 4. Titus 3. Philemon 1. Hebrews James 5. During this time territories began to transform into the predecessors of modern states. The process varied greatly among the various lands and was most advanced in those territories that were almost identical to the lands of the old Germanic tribes, e.
Germany: Inheritance Laws in the 19th and 20th Centuries
It was slower in those scattered territories that were founded through imperial privileges. This development probably best symbolizes the emerging duality between emperor and realm Kaiser und Reich , which were no longer considered identical. The emperor now was to be elected by a majority rather than by consent of all seven electors.
For electors the title became hereditary, and they were given the right to mint coins and to exercise jurisdiction. Also it was recommended that their sons learn the imperial languages — German , Latin , Italian , and Czech. The shift in power away from the emperor is also revealed in the way the post-Hohenstaufen kings attempted to sustain their power. Earlier, the Empire's strength and finances greatly relied on the Empire's own lands, the so-called Reichsgut , which always belonged to the king of the day and included many Imperial Cities.
After the 13th century, the relevance of the Reichsgut faded, even though some parts of it did remain until the Empire's end in Instead, the Reichsgut was increasingly pawned to local dukes, sometimes to raise money for the Empire, but more frequently to reward faithful duty or as an attempt to establish control over the dukes. The direct governance of the Reichsgut no longer matched the needs of either the king or the dukes. The kings beginning with Rudolf I of Germany increasingly relied on the lands of their respective dynasties to support their power.
In contrast with the Reichsgut , which was mostly scattered and difficult to administer, these territories were relatively compact and thus easier to control. In , Rudolf I thus lent Austria and Styria to his own sons. It was thus increasingly in the king's own interest to strengthen the power of the territories, since the king profited from such a benefit in his own lands as well. The "constitution" of the Empire still remained largely unsettled at the beginning of the 15th century.
Although some procedures and institutions had been fixed, for example by the Golden Bull of , the rules of how the king, the electors, and the other dukes should cooperate in the Empire much depended on the personality of the respective king. It therefore proved somewhat damaging that Sigismund of Luxemburg king , emperor — and Frederick III of Habsburg king , emperor — neglected the old core lands of the empire and mostly resided in their own lands.
Without the presence of the king, the old institution of the Hoftag , the assembly of the realm's leading men, deteriorated. The Imperial Diet as a legislative organ of the Empire did not exist at that time. The dukes often conducted feuds against each other — feuds that, more often than not, escalated into local wars. Simultaneously, the Catholic Church experienced crises of its own, with wide-reaching effects in the Empire. The conflict between several papal claimants two anti-popes and the "legitimate" Pope ended only with the Council of Constance — ; after the Papacy directed much of its energy to suppress the Hussites.
The medieval idea of unifying all Christendom into a single political entity, with the Church and the Empire as its leading institutions, began to decline. With these drastic changes, much discussion emerged in the 15th century about the Empire itself. Rules from the past no longer adequately described the structure of the time, and a reinforcement of earlier Landfrieden was urgently needed. During this time, the concept of "reform" emerged, in the original sense of the Latin verb re-formare — to regain an earlier shape that had been lost.
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When Frederick III needed the dukes to finance a war against Hungary in , and at the same time had his son later Maximilian I elected king, he faced a demand from the united dukes for their participation in an Imperial Court. For the first time, the assembly of the electors and other dukes was now called the Imperial Diet German Reichstag to be joined by the Imperial Free Cities later.
Consolidation of the empire
While Frederick refused, his more conciliatory son finally convened the Diet at Worms in , after his father's death in Here, the king and the dukes agreed on four bills, commonly referred to as the Reichsreform Imperial Reform : a set of legal acts to give the disintegrating Empire some structure. For example, this act produced the Imperial Circle Estates and the Reichskammergericht Imperial Chamber Court , institutions that would — to a degree — persist until the end of the Empire in However, it took a few more decades for the new regulation to gain universal acceptance and for the new court to begin to function effectively; only in would the Imperial Circles be finalized.
The King also made sure that his own court, the Reichshofrat , continued to operate in parallel to the Reichskammergericht. This ensured for the first time that all the realms of what is now Spain would be united by one monarch under one nascent Spanish crown. The founding territories retained their separate governance codes and laws.
The balance and imbalance between these separate inheritances would be defining elements of his reign and would ensure that personal union between the Spanish and German crowns would be short-lived. The latter would end up going to a more junior branch of the Habsburgs in the person of Charles's brother Ferdinand , while the senior branch continued to rule in Spain and in the Burgundian inheritance in the person of Charles's son, Philip II of Spain.
In addition to conflicts between his Spanish and German inheritances, conflicts of religion would be another source of tension during the reign of Charles V. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V. The empire then became fatally divided along religious lines, with the north, the east, and many of the major cities — Strasbourg , Frankfurt , and Nuremberg — becoming Protestant while the southern and western regions largely remained Catholic. Charles V continued to battle the French and the Protestant princes in Germany for much of his reign.
After his son Philip married Queen Mary of England , it appeared that France would be completely surrounded by Habsburg domains, but this hope proved unfounded when the marriage produced no children.
In , Paul IV was elected pope and took the side of France, whereupon an exhausted Charles finally gave up his hopes of a world Christian empire. He abdicated and divided his territories between Philip and Ferdinand of Austria.
The Peace of Augsburg ended the war in Germany and accepted the existence of Protestantism in form of Lutheranism , while Calvinism was still not recognized. Anabaptist , Arminian and other minor Protestant communities were also forbidden. Germany would enjoy relative peace for the next six decades. On the eastern front, the Turks continued to loom large as a threat, although war would mean further compromises with the Protestant princes, and so the Emperor sought to avoid it.
In the west, the Rhineland increasingly fell under French influence. After the Dutch revolt against Spain erupted, the Empire remained neutral, de facto allowing the Netherlands to depart the empire in , a secession acknowledged in A side effect was the Cologne War , which ravaged much of the upper Rhine. After Ferdinand died in , his son Maximilian II became Emperor, and like his father accepted the existence of Protestantism and the need for occasional compromise with it.
Maximilian was succeeded in by Rudolf II , a strange man who preferred classical Greek philosophy to Christianity and lived an isolated existence in Bohemia.
He became afraid to act when the Catholic Church was forcibly reasserting control in Austria and Hungary, and the Protestant princes became upset over this. Imperial power sharply deteriorated by the time of Rudolf's death in When Bohemians rebelled against the Emperor, the immediate result was the series of conflicts known as the Thirty Years' War —48 , which devastated the Empire.
Foreign powers, including France and Sweden, intervened in the conflict and strengthened those fighting Imperial power, but also seized considerable territory for themselves. The long conflict so bled the Empire that it never recovered its strength. The actual end of the empire came in several steps. The Peace of Westphalia in , which ended the Thirty Years' War, gave the territories almost complete independence.
Calvinism was now allowed, but Anabaptists , Arminians and other Protestant communities would still lack any support and continue to be persecuted well until the end of the Empire.
Frontiers of the Roman Empire
The Swiss Confederation , which had already established quasi-independence in , as well as the Northern Netherlands , left the Empire. The Habsburg Emperors focused on consolidating their own estates in Austria and elsewhere. By the rise of Louis XIV , the Habsburgs were chiefly dependent on their hereditary lands to counter the rise of Prussia , some of whose territories lay inside the Empire. Throughout the 18th century, the Habsburgs were embroiled in various European conflicts, such as the War of the Spanish Succession , the War of the Polish Succession , and the War of the Austrian Succession.
The German dualism between Austria and Prussia dominated the empire's history after From onwards, revolutionary France was at war with various parts of the Empire intermittently. The German mediatization was the series of mediatizations and secularizations that occurred between and , during the latter part of the era of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Era.